Dynamic thermal rating

DiTeR is the name of the project as a whole and of the resulting software package.

The core of the DiTeR is a physical model for the simulation of heat transfer within the transmission power line under realistic weather conditions, where ambient temperature, wind velocity, rain rate, humidity, pressure and solar irradiance are considered as major factors of influence. DiTeR comprises the heat transport through the power line, heat generation by Joule heating and heat exchange with surrounding via convection, solar heating, radiation, rain impinging and evaporation. The DiTeR problem can be stated as the problem of heat transport with non-linear boundary conditions describing different heat terms due to the weather conditions. The results obtained with DiTeR have been compared against available published data as well as measurements provided by in-house testing site.

Although DiTeR can run in as a standalone software, it is targeted to primarily run as an embedded system within the SUMO framework. SUMO is a heterogeneous collection of subsystem from different vendors that was developed to increase safety and security as well as the capacity of the existing transmission network. Its core is the integration platform, SUMO BUS, which is an enterprise integration bus, used for orchestrating the subsystems and facilitating data exchange between them. The communication between SUMO BUS and the subsystems is based on web services. More precisely, subsystems communicate with the bus via SOAP/HTTP interfaces. This technology enables different subsystem vendors to quickly and efficiently connect their subsystems using standardized and open means of communication and exchanging data. For example, SUMO allows different Dynamic Thermal Rating (DTR) vendors to be incorporated into the system, each serving a different part of the grid. Currently there are 17 services implemented. They are providing approximately 115 methods to the clients (subsystems). System’s internal state is held in a relational SQL database.

The main purpose of DiTeR back end is to provide time evolution of thermal state of the power line with respect to the operational conditions and weather conditions. However, this simulation can be also used to predict operational safety limits. For each time step DiTeR runs nested simulation and computes the maximal current at which power line will not surpass safety limit assuming stationary weather conditions, referred also to as a thermal current. Besides thermal current DiTeR computes also the maximal time the power line can be safely utilized with higher current than thermal current, referred also to as time to overheat. Back end is the executable, that calculates DTR from user or machine provided input parameters. Back end is written in C++14 and can be compiled with modern GCC toolchain. All involved matrix operations are performed with Eigen numerical library1, which supports some shared-memory parallelism. Communication with the server is implemented using Protocol Buffers and spdlog library is used for logging.

Contact information


Jozef Stefan Institute is the leading Slovenian scientific research institute, covering a broad spectrum of basic and applied research. The staff of more than 960 specializes in natural sciences, life sciences and engineering.


Elektroinštitut Milan Vidmar (EIMV) is the leading Slovenian engineering and scientific research organisation acting in the area of electric power engineering and was established in 1948. From the economic and technological perspective, it addresses the issues of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.


4 year licence for operational DTR real-time monitoring and up to 27h forecasting for 27 power lines.


The following documents (papers, conference papers, manuals, ...) were produced with financing from this project



DiTeR backend



Standalone execution



Running unit tests

simulation results